Muscle accounts for 45% of weight in young adults. This drops to 27% in ab muscles old, who chronically show a marked reduction in the size and strength of most skeletal muscle.1 Muscle changes are conspicuous in the little muscles of the hands and face and in the muscles of mastication. The facial muscles sag and become imbalanced. Chronic dietary protein inadequacy may be engaged in depressed immune function, decreasing muscle strength, and poor wound healing in older adults. Until recently, it was thought that adults should ingest 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of weight daily,3 but recent guidelines have suggested a rise to 1 to 1.25 g of highquality protein.4,5 The most effective sources of protein are meat and fish. These foods must be boiled (poached or braised), not fried; boiling prepares meats and catch the gastrointestinal tract by wearing down the complex proteins in to the easier digested proteoses, whereas frying denatures and coagulates the proteins and makes them difficult to digest.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines recommend a diet with 25 to 35% of its daily calorie intake in the form of fat. Additionally, it advises that saturated fat intake be reduced to less than 10% of daily calories, and that cholesterol be restricted to significantly less than 300 mg daily.6,7 These recommendations are for several adults, without any differentiation for the elderly.
Current dietary guidelines from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)6 suggest that carbohydrates should compose from 45 to 65% of daily calories, and the complex carbohydrates (starches) are preferred over simple carbohydrates (sugars). More recently, carbohydrate intake of 130 g/day has been suggested for adults over 70 years of age, with a suggestion that “added sugars” (soft drinks, candy, desserts, etc.) make up only 25% of total energy intake.
Water, the most crucial nutrient in the diet, is important to any or all body functions. Water loss from perspiration, elimination, and the lungs should be balanced every single day by an adequate intake from drinking tap water, beverages, soups, and other foods, especially vegetables. If this balance isn’t maintained, and if water loss exceeds intake, chronic dehydration can result. Bariatric patients are particularly susceptible to negative water balance, often caused by excessive water loss through insufficient or damaged kidneys. Mucosal surfaces become dry and easily irritated in the dehydrated patient. Insufficient fluid consumption generally (and water consumption in particular) may have a deleterious influence on salivary gland function and on overall health. The average sedentary male adult must consume at the very least 2900 mL of fluid daily, and the common sedentary female adult at the least 2200 mL per day, in the shape of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1000 mL of water, by having an additional 250 mL produced from the water of oxidation.
There’s no definite requirement for soluble fiber in the daily diet of bariatric patients. Different types of dietary fiber contribute to the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In studies of different populations, a diet rich in fiber seems to be correlated with decreased rates of cancer and cardiac disease. A growth in dietary fiber is prescribed in the treatment of several common diseases, namely constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, hiatal hernia, varicose veins, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity.10,11 The current recommendation is 14 g of fiber for every 1000 calories consumed each day,12 and the U.S. FDA requires that soluble fiber be listed on the nutrition facts panel on food labels.
Bone serves whilst the skeletal structure to that the muscles are attached and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Calcium is an important mineral that’s essential for many functions in the torso, including transmission of nerve impulses (lack of calcium leads to convulsions), cell membrane integrity, and blood coagulation. Bone serves as the inner source of calcium when the exogenous sources (dietary) become deficient.1,14 Adequate calcium intake is needed for bariatric patients of most ages. Milk and milk products are the best sourced elements of calcium. The majority of the approximately 2 to 3 pounds of calcium present in the torso is concentrated in the bones and teeth. The calcium needs of bariatric patients are approximately 1000 mg per day.