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At the turn of the twenty-first century, morbid obesity has turned into a growing epidemic. Worldwide, multiple billion adults are overweight, including those clinically obese.1 Morbid obesity can be defined as being 100 pounds above ideal bodyweight, or twice the perfect weight, or, more commonly, as a human body mass index (BMI) of 40kg/m2 or greater. Portion control, usage of a low-fat diet, and regular physical activity are behaviors that drive back obesity; however, it is becoming increasingly difficult to adopt and maintain these behaviors inside our modern society.2 A BMI of 40kg/m2 has been demonstrated to be related to premature death, and obesity is the second leading reason behind preventable death in the United States after tobacco use. Obesity has been estimated to cause 280,000 deaths annually in the United States.3 Elevated BMIs will also be associated with a heightened risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and gallbladder disease.4 Medical therapy for morbid obesity has limited short- and long-term success. Randomized controlled trials employing lifestyle modifications or pharmacologic interventions for weight reduction resulted in mere approximately a 7-pound loss which was maintained over a 2-year period.5 Diets which can be reduced in fat or lower in carbohydrates often yield weight reduction that’s insufficient to improve comorbid conditions that are secondary to obesity. Pharmacologic therapy even offers poor results. The most recent antiobesity agent, orlistat, has been shown to generate a maximum weight loss of 10% bodyweight at 1 year, and weight is often regained within 12 to 18 months.6 Surgery has been shown to be the sole effective longterm treatment for morbid obesity. Patients are qualified to receive bariatric surgery if they have a BMI of 40kg/m2 or greater or have a BMI between 35 and 40kg/m2 with significant comorbidities, and have failed other medically managed weight-loss programs.7 The eligible patient must certanly be 18 to 60 years and prove to truly have the motivation for weight-loss maintenance.7 Approximately 12 million people in the United States currently meet these criteria. Typically, patients are not entitled to surgical intervention if obesity is related to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, if they’ve a history of substance abuse or psychiatric problems, or if surgery will be considered high risk; women who will try to become pregnant in the next 18 months are also ineligible for surgery.

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