EXPLANATION OF GENERAL NUTRITIONAL NEEDS

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Protein

Muscle accounts for 45% of weight in young adults. This drops to 27% in ab muscles old, who chronically show a marked decrease in the size and strength of most skeletal muscle.1 Muscle changes are conspicuous in the small muscles of the hands and face and in the muscles of mastication. The facial muscles sag and become imbalanced. Chronic dietary protein inadequacy may be concerned in depressed immune function, decreasing muscle strength, and poor wound healing in older adults. Until recently, it absolutely was thought that adults should ingest 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of weight daily,3 but recent guidelines have suggested an increase to 1 to 1.25 g of highquality protein.4,5 The best resources of protein are meat and fish. These foods should be boiled (poached or braised), not fried; boiling prepares meats and catch the gastrointestinal tract by deteriorating the complex proteins in to the quicker digested proteoses, whereas frying denatures and coagulates the proteins and makes them difficult to digest.

Fat

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines recommend a diet with 25 to 35% of its daily calorie intake in the shape of fat. Furthermore, it advises that saturated fat intake be reduced to significantly less than 10% of daily calories, and that cholesterol be limited to less than 300 mg daily.6,7 These recommendations are for many adults, without any differentiation for the elderly.

Carbohydrates

Current dietary guidelines from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)6 claim that carbohydrates should compose from 45 to 65% of daily calories, and the complex carbohydrates (starches) are preferred over simple carbohydrates (sugars). Recently, carbohydrate intake of 130 g/day has been suggested for adults over 70 years old, with a recommendation that “added sugars” (soft drinks, candy, desserts, etc.) make-up no more than 25% of total energy intake.

Water

Water, the most important nutrient in the diet, is essential to any or all body functions. Water loss from perspiration, elimination, and the lungs should be balanced every single day by an adequate intake from drinking tap water, beverages, soups, and other foods, especially vegetables. If this balance is not maintained, and if water loss exceeds intake, chronic dehydration can result. Bariatric patients are particularly prone to negative water balance, often caused by excessive water loss through insufficient or damaged kidneys. Mucosal surfaces become dry and easily irritated in the dehydrated patient. Insufficient fluid consumption generally (and water consumption in particular) may have a deleterious impact on salivary gland function and on overall health. The common sedentary male adult must consume at the very least 2900 mL of fluid daily, and the average sedentary female adult at the least 2200 mL daily, in the proper execution of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1000 mL of water, by having an additional 250 mL produced from the water of oxidation.

Fiber

There’s no definite requirement for dietary fiber in the daily diet of bariatric patients. Different kinds of dietary fiber contribute to the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In studies of different populations, a diet abundant with fiber appears to be correlated with decreased rates of cancer and cardiac disease. A growth in dietary fiber is prescribed in the treating several common diseases, namely constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, hiatal hernia, varicose veins, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity.10,11 The current recommendation is 14 g of fiber for each 1000 calories consumed daily,12 and the U.S. FDA requires that dietary fiber be listed on the nutrition facts panel on food labels.

Calcium

Bone serves while the skeletal structure to that your muscles are attached and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many functions within the body, including transmission of nerve impulses (lack of calcium results in convulsions), cell membrane integrity, and blood coagulation. Bone serves as the interior source of calcium when the exogenous sources (dietary) become deficient.1,14 Adequate calcium intake is required for bariatric patients of ages. Milk and milk items are the very best sourced elements of calcium. The vast majority of the approximately 2 to 3 pounds of calcium present in the body is concentrated in the bones and teeth. The calcium needs of bariatric patients are approximately 1000 mg per day.

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