Muscle accounts for 45% of bodyweight in young adults. This drops to 27% in the very old, who chronically show a marked decline in the size and strength of most skeletal muscle.1 Muscle changes are conspicuous in the small muscles of the hands and face and in the muscles of mastication. The facial muscles sag and become imbalanced. Chronic dietary protein inadequacy may be engaged in depressed immune function, decreasing muscle strength, and poor wound healing in older adults. Until recently, it had been thought that adults should ingest 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of weight daily,3 but recent guidelines have suggested a growth to 1 to 1.25 g of highquality protein.4,5 The most effective resources of protein are meat and fish. These foods should really be boiled (poached or braised), not fried; boiling prepares meats and fish for the gastrointestinal tract by breaking down the complex proteins in to the quicker digested proteoses, whereas frying denatures and coagulates the proteins and makes them difficult to digest.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines recommend a diet with 25 to 35% of its daily calorie intake in the proper execution of fat. Furthermore, it advises that saturated fat intake be reduced to significantly less than 10% of daily calories, and that cholesterol be limited to significantly less than 300 mg daily.6,7 These recommendations are for several adults, without any differentiation for the elderly.
Current dietary guidelines from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)6 claim that carbohydrates should compose from 45 to 65% of daily calories, and the complex carbohydrates (starches) are preferred over simple carbohydrates (sugars). More recently, carbohydrate intake of 130 g/day has been suggested for adults over 70 years old, with a suggestion that “added sugars” (soft drinks, candy, desserts, etc.) constitute a maximum of 25% of total energy intake.
Water, the most important nutrient in the diet, is important to all or any body functions. Water loss from perspiration, elimination, and the lungs must certanly be balanced every day by a satisfactory intake from drinking water, beverages, soups, and other foods, especially vegetables. If this balance isn’t maintained, and if water loss exceeds intake, chronic dehydration can result. Bariatric patients are particularly susceptible to negative water balance, often caused by excessive water loss through insufficient or damaged kidneys. Mucosal surfaces become dry and easily irritated in the dehydrated patient. Insufficient fluid consumption in general (and water consumption in particular) might have a deleterious impact on salivary gland function and on overall health. The typical sedentary male adult must consume at the very least 2900 mL of fluid daily, and the typical sedentary female adult at the least 2200 mL per day, in the proper execution of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1000 mL of water, with an additional 250 mL derived from the water of oxidation.
There is no definite requirement for dietary fiber in the daily diet of bariatric patients. Different varieties of soluble fiber subscribe to the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. In studies of different populations, a diet abundant with fiber is apparently correlated with decreased rates of cancer and cardiac disease. A rise in soluble fiber is prescribed in treating several common diseases, namely constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, hiatal hernia, varicose veins, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity.10,11 The present recommendation is 14 g of fiber for each 1000 calories consumed daily,12 and the U.S. FDA requires that soluble fiber be listed on the nutrition facts panel on food labels.
Bone serves whilst the skeletal structure to which the muscles are attached and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Calcium is a vital mineral that is essential for many functions in the torso, including transmission of nerve impulses (lack of calcium results in convulsions), cell membrane integrity, and blood coagulation. Bone serves as the interior source of calcium when the exogenous sources (dietary) become deficient.1,14 Adequate calcium intake is essential for bariatric patients of ages. Milk and milk items are the most effective resources of calcium. The vast majority of the approximately 2 to 3 pounds of calcium present within the body is concentrated in the bones and teeth. The calcium needs of bariatric patients are approximately 1000 mg per day.