The Atkins diet was manufactured by Dr. Robert Atkins in the 1960s and became widely known in the 1970s with the release of some books describing Atkins’s theories. In recent years, the Atkins franchise and the Atkins symbol have been used on many different products. The idea is based on the concepts that the key reason behind obesity may be the usage of refined carbohydrates, such as for instance sugar, flour, and corn syrups, and that the consumption of dietary fat does certainly not contribute to obesity. In this diet, the restriction of carbohydrates induces a situation of ketosis where your body begins to break up fat stores in place of using glucose supply for energy. Atkins described four phases of his diet: induction, ongoing fat loss, premaintenance, and lifetime maintenance. In the induction phase, carbohydrate intake is strictly limited to 20 net grams daily (“net” carbohydrates are referred to as those that contribute to sugar levels, which excludes fiber and sugar alcohols). In the ongoing fat loss phase, a growth in carbohydrate intake is allowed, but nonetheless below a level that enables continued weight loss. Carbohydrate intake is further increased in the premaintenance phase, which can be above an even that induces ketosis.

The lifetime maintenance phase stresses long-term adherence to these principles of carbohydrate restriction and a come back to earlier, more restrictive phases if weight gain occurs. Among the largest randomized trials, conducted by Gardner et al90 at Stanford University, has found the diet to create a greater fat loss over a period of 12 months as in contrast to other popular diets. Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets, such as the Atkins diet, have now been shown to have a greater improvement on subjective symptoms, including mood changes and the impression of hunger, as in contrast to low-fat diets.91 A study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implies that the diet is relatively well tolerated, with approximately 40% of male users and 30% of female users reporting long-term usage of the diet (longer than12 months).92 A study by Dansinger et al93 at Tufts–New England Medical Center showed a mean fat loss of 2.1 kg in patients adhering to the Atkins diet over a 1-year period, with 53% of patients remaining compliant through that time. Animal studies have demonstrated significant changes in metabolism the effect of a ketogenic diet, correlating changes in gene expression to weight loss, improved glucose tolerance, and increased energy expenditure.94 Concerns have been raised over possible detrimental consequences of the dietary plan on overall nutritional balance and health with prolonged use. Some studies have suggested an increase in mortality in patients adhering to this diet.95–97 Particular concern has been expressed over increases in cardiovascular risk and mortality that could be owing to the fat intake and carbohydrate restriction.95,96 Studies by Rankin and Turpyn98 have described an optimistic correlation between increasing C-reactive protein levels and a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, which will be indicative of a systemic inflammatory state. Effects on neurotransmitter metabolism have now been postulated, as a ketogenic diet has been shown to be beneficial in seizure prophylaxis in epileptic children.99 Despite such metabolic changes, there remains a paucity of data to aid maintenance of weight loss for more than 12 months from a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet.

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